The Ten Countries with The Largest Rare Earth Reserves in The World
China, China is the absolute largest country of rare earth reserves. Not only is rare earth resources rich in reserves, but also has the advantages of complete minerals and rare earth elements, rare earth grades and reasonable distribution of mineral points. According to a report released by the State Council Information Office in 2012, China’s rare earth reserves accounted for 23% of the world’s share and supplied 90% of the global market.
The United States, the United States is not without rare earth resources, its rare earth reserves rank second in the world. However, the United States sealed up the country’s largest rare earth mine, Mountain Pass, in 2002, and instead imported a large amount from China every year. If all 87 mines in the United States are started, it can meet the commercial needs of the world’s rare earth mines for 280 years.
India, the country’s only source of commercial rare earth materials was originally extracted from monazite beaches in Kerala, India. However, after China began to control the supply of rare earths, India actively explored new sources of rare earths.
Russia, Russia has a large reserve of rare earths, and its main source of rare earths is the recovery of rare earths from apatite ore. In addition, among apatite ore, rare earth minerals that can be recovered are cerium-niobium perovskite, which contains 29% to 34% of rare earths. In addition, there are bastnaesites in Hellebit and Sennell.
Australia, Australia is a major producer of monazite, and the country’s placer deposits are mainly concentrated in the western region. The rare earth resources that can be developed and utilized in the country include uranium mining tailings located in Mount Isa in central Queensland, and the Roxbur Downs copper and uranium gold deposits in South Australia.
Canada, Canada mainly produces rare earth by-products from uranium mines. The uranium mine located in the Bryan River-Elit Lake area in Ontario is mainly composed of bituminous uranium, uranium ilmenite, monazite, and xenotime. Rare earths can also be mentioned when extracting uranium by wet method. In addition, the pyrochlore mine owned in the Orca region of Quebec is also a large potential resource of rare earths.
South Africa, the apatite mine in Stinkampskraal, Cape Province, is accompanied by monazite, which is the world’s only single vein-type monazite rare earth mine. In addition, there are rare earths in the seashore sands of Chats Bay on the southeast coast, and monazite and bastnaesite are also associated with the Buffalo fluorite mine. Recycling is being planned and studied.
Malaysia mainly recovers rare earth minerals such as monazite, xenotime and niobium yttrium from the tailings of tin mines. It was once the world’s main source of heavy rare earths and yttrium.
Egypt, Egypt recovers monazite from ilmenite. The deposit is located in the Nile Delta area and belongs to a riverside sand mine. The source of the deposit is formed by the deposition of weathered alluvial sand from the upstream. The monazite reserves are about 200,000 tons.
Brazil, Brazil is the world’s oldest country in the production of rare earths. It began exporting monazite to Germany in 1884 and was once famous in the world. The monazite resources in Brazil are mainly concentrated in the eastern coast, from Rio de Janeiro to Fortaleza in the north, with a length of about 643km, with large deposits.