Brief introduction to high density polyethylene and usages of HDPE granules

Brief introduction to high density polyethylene and usages of HDPE granules

High Density Polyethylene (referred to as “HDPE”), also known as low pressure polyethylene, is a kind of High crystallinity, non-polar surface shows a certain degree of translucent shape.PE has excellent resistance to most domestic and industrial chemicals.

 

Basic properties: High density polyethylene is a kind of opaque white waxy material, the specific gravity is lighter than water, the specific gravity is 0.941~0.960, soft and ductile, but slightly harder than LDPE, but also a little longer, non-toxic, tasteless.

 

Combustion characteristics: flammable, can continue to burn after leaving the fire, the upper end of the flame is yellow, the lower end of the flame is blue, the combustion will melt, there is liquid dripping, no black smoke, at the same time, emit the smell of paraffin combustion.

 

Main advantages: acid and alkali resistance, organic solvent resistance, excellent electrical insulation, low temperature, can still maintain a certain toughness.The surface hardness, tensile strength, rigidity and other mechanical strength are higher than LDPE, close to PP, tougher than PP.

Brief introduction to high density polyethylene and usages of HDPE granules

Main usages of HDPE granules:

1.Injection products: turnover boxes, bottle caps, barrels, caps, food containers, plates, dustbins, boxes, and plastic flowers.

2.Blow molding products: hollow molding products, such as a variety of series of blow molding barrels, containers, bottles, containing detergents, chemicals, cosmetics, gasoline boxes, daily use products, etc.There are blown film products such as food packaging bags, grocery shopping bags, fertilizer lining film, etc.

3.extruded products: pipe, pipe fittings are mainly used in gas transportation, public water and chemical transportation, such as building materials drainage pipe, gas pipe, hot water pipe, etc. : sheet is mainly used for seats, suitcases, handling containers, etc.

4.Rotation molding: injection molding products such as large containers, storage tanks, barrels, boxes, etc.

5.polyethylene can be processed into film, wire and cable sheath, pipe, a variety of hollow products, injection products, fiber and so on.Widely used in agriculture, packaging, electrical and electronic, machinery, automobiles, daily necessities and other aspects.

 

You can buy different kinds of HDPE granules from many famous brands at home and abroad from IMRI at a competitive price.

Structure of railway and connecting parts of railroad steel rails

Structure of railway and connecting parts of railroad steel rails

Railroad steel rails are used on railroads and in cooperation with switches so that trains can move without turning.The track is usually composed of two parallel rails, the rail is fixed on the rail pillow, under the sleeper is the ballast, including the roadbed, the connecting parts of the rail and so on.

 

Railway bed:

 

Railway bed is the foundation of railway track or road surface, it is the structure that bears and transmits the gravity of rail and the dynamic action of train, and it is the important structure to ensure the train running.The railway bed should have enough strength and stability, that is, the foundation should not be too large subsidence under its own static action.Excessive elastic and plastic deformation should not occur under vehicle dynamic action.The roadbed slope should be stable for a long time without slumping.Therefore, it is necessary to build some drainage ditches, slope protection, retaining structures and other railway bed ancillary structures beside it.The railway bed is a kind of linear structure, which has the characteristics of long route and wide contact with nature.

 

Structure of railway tracks:

 

From bottom to top, the track structure is respectively arranged on the top surface of the roadbed, buried in the track bed sleeper, and by connecting parts and sleeper connected rail.The function of the track bed is to transmit the dynamic load and static load itself and above to the roadbed, and prevent the sleeper displacement.The sleeper is used to bear the load from the rail and transmit it to the track bed together with its own weight.The rail is the uppermost structure of the track, which directly bears the wheel load and guides the locomotives and vehicles.

Structure of railway and connecting parts of railroad steel rails

Composition of railway subgrade:

 

The roadbed is composed of two parts, the road base and the ancillary facilities.Subgrade surface, subgrade and subgrade slope constitute the road matrix.Subgrade auxiliary facilities are to ensure the strength and stability of the subgrade, including drainage facilities, protection facilities and reinforcement facilities.Drainage facilities have drainage ditches, protection facilities such as planting grass and trees, reinforcement facilities have retaining walls, buttresses retaining structures.

 

Rail and sleeper:

 

Steel rail is the basic load-bearing structure of railway tracks, which is used to guide the rolling of locomotives and vehicles and provide the contact surface with the least resistance for the rolling of wheels.Steel rail should have sufficient bearing capacity, bending strength, fracture toughness, stability and corrosion resistance.The track bed under the rail is generally laid horizontally with sleepers, which bear the pressure from the rail and pass to the track bed, while using fasteners to effectively maintain the track gauge and position.

 

Connecting parts of the rail:

 

A rail coupling part includes a joint coupling part and an intermediate coupling part.The rail joint connecting part is composed of splint, bolt, spring washer, etc. Its function is to connect the rail at the joint, so that the rail joint part has the same integrity as the rail, so as to resist bending and displacement.Joints should also meet the requirements of rail expansion.The connection between the rail and the sleeper is realized through the intermediate connecting parts.Intermediate connection parts, also known as fastenings, require sufficient strength, durability and certain elasticity, in order to effectively maintain the reliable connection between rail and sleeper for a long time, prevent the movement of rail relative to sleeper, and can give full play to its buffering performance under the dynamic action, delay the accumulation of residual deformation of track.

Application of Kaolin in Rubber

Kaolin is widely used as a filler in the rubber industry. Adding it to latex mixtures can improve the mechanical properties of rubber, increase the mechanical strength of rubber products, enhance wear resistance and chemical stability, and extend the hardening time of rubber.

 

  1. Modification of kaolin and its application characteristics in rubber

Kaolin is an important filler for rubber products. When used as a filler in the past, it is generally believed that the product performance mainly depends on the particle size distribution and particle specific surface area. However, modern scientific research has proved that the surface of kaolin powder after beneficiation, purification and crushing has a large number of hydroxyl groups and oxygen-containing functional groups, which is acidic, and the kaolin after calcination is more acidic.

In addition, kaolin has a large specific surface area and high surface energy, resulting in poor compatibility with organic polymer systems. Therefore, when used as fillers for polymer-based materials (such as epoxy resin or vinyl resin), the surface must be modified to obtain products with better performance.

 

  1. Application of nano kaolin in rubber

Nano-kaolin can be used in various rubber products, significantly improving its mechanical and physical properties, while reducing its production costs, especially in terms of elasticity, flex resistance, barrier properties and elongation at break.

In butadiene rubber, EPDM rubber, natural rubber and nitrile rubber, nano-kaolin has better reinforcing performance than white carbon black, and it is close to the reinforcing performance of white carbon black in styrene butadiene rubber. It is suitable for tires. Side rubber, inner tube, golf rubber, rubber wire, nitrile sealing rubber, sole rubber, rubber roller, glue stick, conveyor belt rubber and other products.

In terms of mechanical properties, in the EPDM, natural rubber, and styrene-butadiene rubber used in rubber jacket/insulated cables, nanometers can be close to the current mainstream reinforcing materials, white carbon black and carbon black. Its electrical properties are far superior to other materials, comparable to calcined kaolin. Nano-kaolin is used in rubber wires and cables to achieve a combination of high mechanical properties and high electrical properties.

In natural rubber such as bladders and inner tubes, nano-kaolin can be used alone as a reinforcing material for the system, which can provide performance beyond white carbon black and close to carbon black. Adding 40-60phr can improve the mechanical properties, processing performance, and gas of the system. The performance of compact and reachable products exceeds the peak. IIR itself has very excellent barrier properties. Adding nano-kaolin, even if a small amount of 10phr is added, can increase the air-tightness of IR by more than 3 times; at the same time, the high-reinforcing properties of nano-kaolin give the system good performance.

Introduction of 3PE anti-corrosive coating steel pipe

What is the difference between TPEP anticorrosive steel pipe and 3PE anticorrosive steel pipe ?

What is the difference between TPEP anticorrosive steel pipe and 3PE anticorrosive steel pipe ?

TPEP anticorrosive steel pipe and 3PE anticorrosive steel pipe are upgrading products on the basis of the outer single layer polyethylene and internal epoxy coated steel pipe, it is the most advanced anticorrosive long distance steel pipeline buried underground. Do you know what is the difference between TPEP anticorrosive steel pipe and 3PE anticorrosive steel pipe?

Introduction of 3PE anti-corrosive coating steel pipe

What is the difference between TPEP anticorrosive steel pipe and 3PE anticorrosive steel pipe

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Coating Structure

The outer wall of TPEP anticorrosive steel pipe is made of 3PE hot-melt junction winding process.  It is composed of three layers, epoxy resin(bottom layer), adhesive(intermediate layer) and polyethylene(outer layer). The inner wall adopts the anti-corrosion way of thermal spraying epoxy powder, and the powder is evenly coated on the surface of the steel pipe after being heated and fused at high temperature to form a steel-plastic composite layer, which greatly improves the thickness of the coating and the adhesion of the coating, enhances the ability of bump resistance and corrosion resistance, and makes it widely used.

 

3PE anticorrosive coating steel pipe refers to the three layers of polyolefin outside anti-corrosion steel pipe, its anticorrosion structure generally consists of three layer structure, epoxy powder, adhesive and PE, in practice, these three materials mixed melting processing, and steel pipe firmly together, forming a layer of polyethylene (PE) anticorrosive coating, has a good corrosion resistance, resistance to moisture permeability and mechanical properties, is widely used in the oil pipeline industry.

 

Performance Characteristics

Different from the general steel pipe, TPEP anticorrosive steel pipe has been made internal and external anticorrosive, has a very high sealing, long-term operation can greatly save energy, reduce costs, protect the environment. With strong corrosion resistance, convenient construction, its service life is up to 50 years. It also has good corrosion resistance and impact resistance at low temperature. At the same time, it also has high epoxy strength, good softness of hot melt adhesive, etc., and has high anti-corrosion reliability; In addition, our TPEP anticorrosive steel pipe is produced in strict accordance with national standard specifications, obtained anticorrosive steel pipe drinking water safety certificate, to ensure the safety of drinking water.

 

3PE anticorrosive steel pipe made of polyethylene material, this material is marked by good corrosion resistance, directly extend the service life of anticorrosive steel pipe;

3PE anticorrosive steel pipe because of its different specifications, can be divided into ordinary grade and strengthening grade, the PE thickness of ordinary grade 3PE anticorrosive steel pipe  is about 2.0mm, and the PE thickness of the strengthening grade is about 2.7mm. As an ordinary external anticorrosion on casing pipe, the ordinary grade is more than enough. If it is used to directly transport acid, alkali, natural gas and other fluids, try to use the strengthened grade 3PE anticorrosion steel pipe.

 

The above is about the difference between TPEP anticorrosive steel pipe and 3PE anticorrosive steel pipe, mainly reflected in the performance characteristics and application of different, the correct selection of the appropriate anticorrosive steel pipe, play its due role.

 

 

 

 

Thread Gauges for Casing Pipes Used in Oil Drilling Projects

Thread Gauges for Casing Pipes Used in Oil Drilling Projects

Casing thread gauge is a deep machining product with high requirement and large amount in oil drilling and production engineering.A single oil casing is connected by thread into a long string thousands of meters long and able to withstand a pressure of hundreds of atmospheres — a tubular high-pressure vessel.In 1924, the API established the first standard for oil well pipes. The casing joint thread was 10 teeth per inch and 8 teeth per inch V-thread, but it was later replaced by API8 round thread and offset ladder thread, and is still in use today.API SPEC 5B provides that the common casing threads are round thread (CSG) and offset trapezoidal thread (BCSG).

Thread Gauges for Casing Pipes Used in Oil Drilling Projects

These two kinds of threaded joints are generally used in oil and gas fields .With the oil and gas exploration and development, especially in deep wells and ultra deep wells and high pressure gas well and directional well, hydrogen sulfide-bearing wells such as the increase of oil casing joint performance put forward higher requirements, the use of API round thread and partial ladder model of air tightness, bonding strength and corrosion resistance can meet requirements, for countries to have a special development and application of the nipple.API round thread, partial ladder thread and some special thread are described in the following.

 

API round thread gauge: API Round Thread Gauge is divided into Casing Short Round Thread Gauge (CSG) and Casing Long Round Thread Gauge (LCSG).Tubing Thread Gauge is abbreviated as TBG and is subdivided into Non-Thickness Tubing Thread Gauge (TBG) and External Thickness Tubing Thread Gauge (UP TBG).

 

The thread form of the circular thread gauge is a tapered pipe thread without shoulder, which needs to be connected with a collar. The tooth type is triangular, the bottom of the dome is round, the tooth angle is 60°, the thread taper is 1:16, the bisector of the tooth angle is perpendicular to the axis. When the thread is tightened, the tooth side of the internal and external thread is sealed.

 

Gauges for offset trapezoidal thread:BCSG, non-shoulder tapered pipe thread with collar connection, offset trapezoidal, flat top, flat bottom, tooth type.

Rare Earth Oxide-Lanthanum Oxide

Lanthanum oxide is a chemical substance and its molecular formula is La2O3. Slightly soluble in water, soluble in acid, easy to absorb carbon dioxide and water in the exposed air, mainly used to make precision optical glass and optical fiber.

Use:

Mainly used to manufacture precision optical glass and optical fiber. Also used in the electronics industry as ceramic capacitors, piezoelectric ceramic dopants. It is also used as a raw material for lanthanum boride and a catalyst for petroleum separation and refining.

Application areas:

  1. Mainly used in the manufacture of special alloy precision optical glass, high-refraction optical fiber board, suitable for cameras, cameras, microscope lenses and advanced optical instrument prisms.
  2. It is also used in the manufacture of ceramic capacitors, piezoelectric ceramic dopants and X-ray luminescent materials, such as lanthanum bromide powder. It is obtained by extracting lanthanum phosphite or burning lanthanum carbonate or lanthanum nitrate. It can also be obtained by thermal decomposition of lanthanum oxalate.
  3. Used as a catalyst for various reactions, such as catalyzing the oxidation reaction of carbon monoxide when doped with cadmium oxide, and catalyzing the reaction of carbon monoxide hydrogenation to methane when doped with palladium. It is a very effective selective catalyst for the oxidative coupling of methane to ethane and ethylene.
  4. Lanthanum oxide impregnated with lithium oxide or zirconium oxide (1%) can be used to make ferrite magnets.
  5. Used to improve the temperature dependence and dielectric properties of barium titanate (BaTiO3) and strontium titanate (SrTiO3) ferroelectrics, and to manufacture fiber optics and optical glass.

Our lanthanum oxide test report: