What is Honing Tube and its Characteristics and Applications ?

What is Honing Tube and its Characteristics and Applications ?

What is Honing Tube ?

Honing tube are seamless steel tubes that have been honed.

Honing is a kind of mechanical processing technology. By means of high-speed reciprocating honing process of honing head on the inner wall of cold drawn seamless pipe, to ensure the inner hole can meet the requirements on tolerance, size and surface roughness.

What is Honing Tube and its Characteristics and Applications ?

What are the characteristics and advantages of honing pipes?

1. High machining accuracy

In particular, some small and medium-sized hole, their cylindricity can be up to 0.001mm.

Parts with uneven wall thickness, such as connecting rods, can be as rounded as 0.002mm.

For large holes (over 200mm in diameter), roundness can be up to 0.005mm. If there are no ring grooves or radial holes, straightness within 0.01mm/1m is also possible. Honing has a higher precision than grinding, because the bearing supporting the grinding wheel is located outside the honing hole during grinding, and the grinding accuracy will be worse, especially for hole machining.

Generally, honing can only improve the shape accuracy of the workpiece to be processed. To improve the position accuracy of the part, some necessary measures should be taken.

For example, the panel can be used to improve the perpendicularity of the end face of the part and the axis (the panel is installed on the stroke bracket and adjusted so that it is perpendicular to the rotating spindle, and the part can be processed by leaning on the panel).

2. Good surface quality

The surface is cross – mesh, which is good for the storage of lubricating oil and the maintenance of oil film.

It has a high surface bearing rate (the ratio between the actual contact area of the hole and the shaft and the fitting area between the two), so it can bear a large load and wear resistance, thus improving the service life of the product. The honing speed is low (one-tenth of the grinding speed), and the whetstone is in contact with the hole, so the average grinding pressure of each abrasive is small. In this way, the heating energy of the workpiece during honing is very small, and the surface of the workpiece is almost free from thermal damage and metamorphism, and the deformation is small. The honing surface has almost no embedded sand and extrusion hard layer.

3. Wide processing range

Main processing all kinds of cylindrical holes: through hole, axial and radial discontinuous hole, such as radial hole or slot hole, keyway hole, spline hole, blind hole, multi-step hole, etc.

In addition, the honing head can also be used to process cone hole, ellipse hole, etc. However, because of the complex structure of the honing head, it is generally not used.

It is possible to hone the cylinder with the cylindrical honing tool, but the margin removed is much less than that of the inner honing. Honing can be used to process materials, especially diamond and cubic boron nitride abrasives, which further expand the application of honing and greatly improve the efficiency of honing.

4. Low cutting margin

In order to achieve the precision required by the drawing, honing is one of the machining methods that can remove less margin. In honing, the tool takes the workpiece as the guide to cut out the excess residue to achieve the desired accuracy. When honing, the honing tool should first remove the large margin in the workpiece and then gradually remove the small margin.

5.Strong hole correction ability

Due to the lack of other processing technology, there will be some processing defects in the process, such as: out of circle, flared mouth, wavy hole, small size, waist drum shape, taper, boring pattern, reamer pattern, rainbow shape, hole deviation and surface roughness, etc. By using honing process, the dimensional accuracy, roundness, straightness, cylindricity and surface roughness of holes and outer circles can be improved by removing less machining allowance.

Applications

Honing pipe is a kind of high precision steel pipe material after being cold-drawn or hot-rolled.

Because the inner and outer wall of the precision steel tube has no oxide layer, no leakage under high pressure, high precision, high finish, no deformation during cold bending, no flaring, flattening and other advantages, it is mainly used for the production of pneumatic or hydraulic components of products.

Honing tubes are widely used in the production of hydraulic cylinders, as well as a variety of high-precision equipment. It is widely used in construction machinery, lifting transport machinery, petrochemical oil pump, coal mine pillar, automobile shock absorber, internal combustion engine oil pipe, concrete conveying cylinder, roller sleeve and other industries.

Usages of drill string, casing and tubing in oil drilling

Usages of drill string, casing and tubing in oil drilling

Oil drilling and production steel pipes can be generally classified into drill string (including kelly, drill pipe, weighted drill pipe, drill collar), casing (including surface casing, technical casing, oil layer casing liner) and tubing according to various structures, forms, uses and performance.

Usages of drill string, casing and tubing in oil drilling

  1. Drill string:
  • Kelly: The kelly is located at the top of the drill string, connected with the drill pipe below. The structure is characterized by an internal round external square or an internal round external hexagon.Its function is to transfer the rotary power of the surface rotary table to the downhole bit through the drill string, to break the bottom rock layer, transfer the well flushing fluid, cool the bit and clean the bottom rock header.
  • Drill pipe: The drill pipe is located in the middle of the drill string, under the kelly, and weighted above the drill pipe or drill chain.The main function is to transfer the ground rotating power to the drill bit through the kelly, which serves as the intermediate medium, and gradually lengthen the connection of the drill pipe to make the depth increase continuously.Start drilling and replace the drill bit.Transfer tools and drilling fluid into the well.The drill pipe is made of two parts of pipe body and joint by friction welding.Hot-rolled alloy steel seamless pipe is adopted to increase the strength of the welded part between the pipe and the joint.The two ends of the tube body shall be upset and thickened at the welding part. The thickening forms include: internal thickening and external thickening, and internal and external thickening, respectively represented by IU, EU and IEU symbols.Drill pipe steel grades are E-75, X-95,G-105 and S-135.Two or three digits after the letter indicate the minimum yield strength of the grade.The drill pipe joints are generally made of high-strength alloy steel by rolling, forging, heat treatment and mechanical processing into butt welding joints of different thread types. The thread types mainly include inner flat, full hole and normal, which are respectively represented by IF,FH and REG.Butt weld joints of different sizes and thread types are required for drill pipe with different steel grades and specifications.Since the outside diameter of the butt welding drill pipe joint is larger than the outside diameter of the pipe body, it is easy to wear during drilling, so the joint material is required to have high strength and wear resistance.In order to improve the wear resistance of the joint, in addition to strengthening treatment and increasing the hardness of the joint, it is generally possible to spray welding on the surface of the joint with higher hardness and wear-resistant materials, thus greatly increasing the service life of the joint.
  • Weighted drill pipe: it is a kind of drill pipe of medium weight similar to drill pipe, with wall thickness 2-3 times of drill pipe.At both ends of the thick-walled tube body, there are extra-long extra-thick pipe joints, and part of extra-thick pipe joints in the middle.The weighted drill pipe is generally added between the drill pipe and the drill collar when forming the drill string to prevent the sudden change of the drill string section and reduce the drill pipe fatigue.
  • Drill collar: located at the lower part of the drill pipe or weighted drill pipe, connected with the drill pipe or weighted drill pipe at the top, and connected with the drill bit at the bottom.These include alloy drill collars, non magnetic drill collars and spiral drill collars, square drill collars, etc.By virtue of its own weight and high rigidity, apply bit pressure and bending resistance to the well, so that the bit can work smoothly, prevent well deviation, and maintain the shaft strike.

 

  1. Casing:

In order for the underground oil and gas reservoir to be transported to the surface smoothly, it is necessary to run the oil “casing” from the bottom hole to the top of the well to construct a channel to prevent blowout and leakage and isolate the different oil, gas and water layers.Can be divided into surface casing, technical casing, oil layer casing, liner according to different uses .

1) Surface casing: used for drilling through the soft and prone to collapse of the ground to reinforce the shaft wall, prevent collapse, and make the drilling proceed smoothly.Common specifications are 13 3/8″ and 10 3/4.

2) Technical casing: In drilling, in order to prevent well collapse, leakage and blowout in complex formation and prevent high-pressure brine layer fluid flow into the well, the technical casing must be applied to isolate and reinforce the borehole wall.Common specifications are 9 5/8″ and 8 5/8″.

3) Reservoir casing: after drilling to the target layer, in order to prevent interference between reservoirs with different pressures and other fluids from immersing in the well, it is necessary to go into the reservoir casing to isolate the oil, gas and water layers, so as to realize layered exploitation and layered water injection.Common specifications are 4 1/2″, 5 1/2″, 6 5/8″, 7″.

Usages of drill string, casing and tubing in oil drilling

  1. Tubing:

It is mainly used for oil recovery and gas extraction, to export underground oil and gas to the surface through tubing.According to its end structure, the tubing can be divided into three types: flat tubing, external thickening tubing and integral joint tubing.

The Ten Countries with The Largest Rare Earth Reserves in The World

The Ten Countries with The Largest Rare Earth Reserves in The World

China, China is the absolute largest country of rare earth reserves. Not only is rare earth resources rich in reserves, but also has the advantages of complete minerals and rare earth elements, rare earth grades and reasonable distribution of mineral points. According to a report released by the State Council Information Office in 2012, China’s rare earth reserves accounted for 23% of the world’s share and supplied 90% of the global market.

 

The United States, the United States is not without rare earth resources, its rare earth reserves rank second in the world. However, the United States sealed up the country’s largest rare earth mine, Mountain Pass, in 2002, and instead imported a large amount from China every year. If all 87 mines in the United States are started, it can meet the commercial needs of the world’s rare earth mines for 280 years.

 

India, the country’s only source of commercial rare earth materials was originally extracted from monazite beaches in Kerala, India. However, after China began to control the supply of rare earths, India actively explored new sources of rare earths.

 

Russia, Russia has a large reserve of rare earths, and its main source of rare earths is the recovery of rare earths from apatite ore. In addition, among apatite ore, rare earth minerals that can be recovered are cerium-niobium perovskite, which contains 29% to 34% of rare earths. In addition, there are bastnaesites in Hellebit and Sennell.

 

Australia, Australia is a major producer of monazite, and the country’s placer deposits are mainly concentrated in the western region. The rare earth resources that can be developed and utilized in the country include uranium mining tailings located in Mount Isa in central Queensland, and the Roxbur Downs copper and uranium gold deposits in South Australia.

 

Canada, Canada mainly produces rare earth by-products from uranium mines. The uranium mine located in the Bryan River-Elit Lake area in Ontario is mainly composed of bituminous uranium, uranium ilmenite, monazite, and xenotime. Rare earths can also be mentioned when extracting uranium by wet method. In addition, the pyrochlore mine owned in the Orca region of Quebec is also a large potential resource of rare earths.

 

South Africa, the apatite mine in Stinkampskraal, Cape Province, is accompanied by monazite, which is the world’s only single vein-type monazite rare earth mine. In addition, there are rare earths in the seashore sands of Chats Bay on the southeast coast, and monazite and bastnaesite are also associated with the Buffalo fluorite mine. Recycling is being planned and studied.

 

Malaysia mainly recovers rare earth minerals such as monazite, xenotime and niobium yttrium from the tailings of tin mines. It was once the world’s main source of heavy rare earths and yttrium.

 

Egypt, Egypt recovers monazite from ilmenite. The deposit is located in the Nile Delta area and belongs to a riverside sand mine. The source of the deposit is formed by the deposition of weathered alluvial sand from the upstream. The monazite reserves are about 200,000 tons.

 

Brazil, Brazil is the world’s oldest country in the production of rare earths. It began exporting monazite to Germany in 1884 and was once famous in the world. The monazite resources in Brazil are mainly concentrated in the eastern coast, from Rio de Janeiro to Fortaleza in the north, with a length of about 643km, with large deposits.

 

Hydrostatic Testing

What is Hydrostatic Testing and its Work Principle ?

What is Hydrostatic Testing and its Work Principle ?

 

Work principle

Hydrostatic testing is a type of pressure test that works by completely filling the component with water, removing the air contained within the unit, and pressurizing the system up to 1.5 times the design pressure limit the of the unit. The pressure is then held for a specific amount of time to visually inspect the system for leaks. Visual inspection can be enhanced by applying either tracer or fluorescent dyes to the liquid to determine where cracks and leaks are originating.

Hydrostatic test requirements:

During the hydrostatic test, the water pressure should rise or fall slowly. When the working pressure is reached, the pressure boost should be suspended to check whether there is leakage or abnormal phenomenon, and then the pressure rise to the test pressure. The pressure remained constant during the inspection. Hydrostatic test should be carried out when the ambient temperature is higher than 5℃, otherwise there must be anti-freezing measures, to choose clean water, when the requirements are not high, industrial water can be used to replace clean water, water temperature should be higher than the surrounding dew point to prevent condensation on the surface of the boiler, but should not be too high, generally 20~70℃.

The test usually adopts the stepped-up method to check the deformation and leakage of the equipment while testing, and maintain the pressure for a certain time after the test pressure. There is no water drop or mist on the metal wall and weld seam of the pressure element. When the pressure is reduced to work pressure, there is no beads of water at the expansion mouth, After hydrostatic test, no residual deformation was found.

 

1. Pre-test phase:

(1) Raise the water pressure inside the pipe to the specified test pressure and stabilize the pressure for 30min. During the period, if the pressure drops, fill the pipe with water and the fill pressure shall not be higher than the test pressure;

(2) Check whether there is water leakage or damage in pipe joints, fittings and other places;

(3) In case of water leakage or damage, the pressure test shall be stopped in time, and the cause shall be found out and corresponding measures shall be taken before the pressure test is repeated.

 

2. Main test phrase:

stop filling pressure by water injection and stabilize it for 15min. When the pressure drop after 15min does not exceed the allowable pressure drop value, reduce the test pressure to the working pressure and keep the constant pressure for 30min, inspect appearance, If there is no water leakage, the hydrostatic test on this pipe is qualified.

 

Applicationns

Hydrostatic test is widely used in daily life, hydraulic flaw detection, pressure and blasting test of small valves, pressure vessels, all kinds of metal and non-metal pipe, testing hydraulic strength and sealing performance of various petroleum tools, pressure detection and revision of pressure instruments,fire hose and fire extinguisher and other fire equipment pressure and blasting test.

Development history and tempering technology of API 5L pipeline steel pipes

Development history and tempering technology of API 5L pipeline steel pipes

API 5L pipeline pipe belongs to the United States petroleum standard pipeline pipe, pipeline pipe is to take out the oil, steam, water from the ground, through the pipeline pipe to the oil and natural gas industry enterprises.The pipe comprises seamless steel pipes and a welded steel pipes, with plain ends, threaded ends and socket ends.The connection mode is end welding, collar connection, socket connection, etc.

 

Development history of API 5L steel pipeline:

API released API 5L standard in 1926. At first, it only included A25, A and B steel grades, with the minimum yield values of 172MPa, 207MPa and 241MPa respectively.

API released API 5LX standard in 1947, which added X42, X46 and X52 steel grades, with the minimum yield values of 289MPa, 317MPa and 358MPa respectively.

Since 1966, four steel grades X56, X60, X65 and X70 have been issued successively, with the minimum yield values of 386MPa, 413MPa, 448MPa and 482MPa respectively.

In 1972, API released U80 and U100 standards, with the minimum yield values of 551MPa and 691Mpa respectively. Later, API changed U80 and U100 into X80 and X100.

Development history and tempering technology of API 5L pipeline steel pipes

Tempering of pipeline steel pipe

API 5L pipeline steel pipe annealing: Heat the API 5L pipeline steel pipe whose structure deviates from the equilibrium state to the appropriate temperature, keep it for a certain time, and then cool it slowly (with the furnace cooling) to obtain the heat treatment process of the structure close to the equilibrium state.

There are many kinds of annealing processes for API 5L pipeline steel tubes, which can be divided into two categories according to the heating temperature: one is annealing above the critical temperature (Ac1 or Ac3), also known as phase change recrystallization annealing, including complete annealing, incomplete annealing, spheroidizing annealing and diffusion annealing, etc.The other is annealing below critical temperature, including recrystallization annealing and stress relieving annealing.

  1. Complete annealing and isothermal annealing of API 5L pipeline steel pipes:Complete annealing and weighing crystallization annealing, generally referred to as annealing, this annealing is mainly used for the casting of various carbon steel and alloy steel of subeutectoid composition, API 5L pipeline steel and hot rolled profiles, and sometimes also used for welding structures.It is usually used as the final heat treatment for some API 5L pipeline steels, or as a pre-heat treatment for some API 5L pipeline steels.
  2. Spheroidizing annealing:Spheroidizing annealing is mainly used for eutectoid API 5L pipeline steel and alloy tool steel (such as steel used in manufacturing cutting tools, measuring tools and moulds).Its main purpose is to reduce hardness, improve machinability and prepare for future quenching.
  3. Stress relief annealing:Also known as low temperature annealing (or high temperature tempering), this annealing is mainly used to eliminate the residual stress of API 5L pipeline steel, forgings, welding parts, hot rolled parts, cold drawn parts and so on.If these stresses are not eliminated, they may cause deformation or cracks in the steel after a certain period of time or during subsequent machining.

 

Quenching: When quenching, the most commonly used cooling medium is salt water, water and oil.Brine quenching workpiece, easy to get high hardness and smooth surface, not easy to quench not hard soft point, but easy to make the workpiece deformation serious, even cracking.However, oil as quenching medium is only suitable for the quenching of some alloy steels with high stability of supercooled austenite or API 5L pipeline steel pipes of small size.

 

Purposes of tempering API 5L pipeline steel pipes:

  1. Reduce brittleness and eliminate or reduce internal stress. After quenching, API 5L pipeline steel pipe has great internal stress and brittleness.
  2. To obtain the mechanical properties required by the workpiece, API 5L pipeline steel pipe has high hardness and great brittleness after quenching. In order to meet the requirements of different properties of API 5L pipeline steelpipes, hardness can be adjusted through appropriate tempering to reduce brittleness and obtain the required toughness and plasticity.
  3. Keep workpiece size stable.
  4. For some alloy steels that cannot be softened by annealing, high temperature tempering is often used after quenching (or normalizing) to make the carbides in API 5L pipeline steel pipe gather properly and reduce the hardness for cutting.

What Rre Rare Earth Minerals Used For?

Rare earth elements are known as “industrial vitamins”. They have excellent magnetic, optical and electrical properties that cannot be replaced. They have played a huge role in improving product performance, increasing product varieties, and increasing production efficiency. Due to its large effect and small amount, rare earth has become an important element to improve product structure, increase scientific and technological content, and promote technological progress in the industry. It has been widely used in metallurgy, military, petrochemical, glass ceramics, agriculture and new materials.

Metallurgical Industry

Rare earths have been applied in the metallurgical field for more than 30 years. At present, relatively mature technologies and processes have been formed. The application of rare earths in iron and steel and non-ferrous metals is a large-scale and wide-ranging field with broad prospects. Rare earth metals or fluorides and silicides added to steel can play a role in refining, desulfurizing, neutralizing low melting point harmful impurities, and can improve the processing performance of steel; rare earth ferrosilicon alloy and rare earth silicon-magnesium alloy are used as spheroidizing agent to produce rare earth Ductile iron, because this type of ductile iron is particularly suitable for the production of complex ductile iron parts with special requirements, it is widely used in machinery manufacturing such as automobiles, tractors, and diesel engines; rare earth metals are added to non-ferrous metals such as magnesium, aluminum, copper, zinc, and nickel In the alloy, the physical and chemical properties of the alloy can be improved, and the room temperature and high temperature mechanical properties of the alloy can be improved.

Military field

Because rare earth has excellent physical properties such as photoelectromagnetism, it can form a wide variety of new materials with different properties and other materials, which can greatly improve the quality and performance of other products. Therefore it is called “industrial gold”. First of all, the addition of rare earths can greatly improve the tactical performance of steel, aluminum alloys, magnesium alloys, and titanium alloys used in the manufacture of tanks, aircraft, and missiles. In addition, rare earths can also be used as high-tech lubricants in electronics, lasers, nuclear industry, superconductivity, and many more. Once rare earth technology is used in the military, it will inevitably bring about a leap in military technology. In a certain sense, the overwhelming control of the US military in several local wars after the Cold War and its ability to openly kill the enemy unscrupulously stemmed from its superior rare earth technology.

Petrochemical

Rare earth can be used to make molecular sieve catalysts in the petrochemical industry. It has the advantages of high activity, good selectivity, and strong resistance to heavy metal poisoning. Therefore, it replaces aluminum silicate catalysts for petroleum catalytic cracking process; in the production process of synthetic ammonia, it is used A small amount of rare earth nitrate is used as a co-catalyst, and its processing gas volume is 1.5 times larger than that of the nickel-aluminum catalyst; in the process of synthesizing butadiene rubber and isoprene rubber, the naphthenate-triisobutyl aluminum catalyst is used to obtain the product performance Excellent, with less glue on equipment, stable operation, short post-treatment process, etc.; composite rare earth oxide can also be used as a catalyst for exhaust gas purification of internal combustion engines, and cerium naphthenate can also be used as a paint drier.

Glass ceramic

The application of rare earths in my country’s glass and ceramics industry has been increasing at an average rate of 25% since 1988, reaching about 1,600 tons in 1998. Rare earth glass ceramics are not only traditional basic materials for industry and life, but also major members in the high-tech field. . Rare earth oxides or processed rare earth concentrates can be widely used as polishing powder for polishing optical glass, spectacle lenses, picture tubes, oscilloscope tubes, flat glass, plastics and metal tableware; it can be used in the glass melting process Cerium dioxide has a strong oxidizing effect on iron, reducing the iron content in the glass to achieve the purpose of removing the green in the glass; adding rare earth oxides can make optical glasses and special glasses for different purposes, including the ability to pass infrared rays , UV-absorbing glass, acid-resistant and heat-resistant glass, X-ray resistant glass, etc.; adding rare earths to ceramic glazes and enamels can reduce the fragmentation of the glaze, and make the products show different colors and glosses. It is widely used in the ceramic industry.

Agriculture

The research results show that rare earth elements can increase the chlorophyll content of plants, enhance photosynthesis, promote root development, and increase roots’ absorption of nutrients. Rare earth can also promote seed germination, increase seed germination rate, and promote seedling growth. In addition to the above main functions, it also has the ability to enhance disease resistance, cold resistance and drought resistance of certain crops. A large number of studies have also shown that the use of appropriate concentrations of rare earth elements can promote the absorption, transformation and utilization of nutrients by plants. Spraying rare earths can increase the Vc content, total sugar content, sugar-acid ratio of apple and citrus fruits, and promote fruit coloring and early maturity. It can also inhibit the breathing intensity during storage and reduce the decay rate.

New material field

The rare earth neodymium iron boron permanent magnet material has the characteristics of high remanence, high coercivity and high magnetic energy product. It is widely used in the electronics and aerospace industry and to drive wind generators (especially suitable for offshore power plants); pure rare earth oxides and The garnet-type ferrite single crystal and polycrystalline formed by the combination of iron oxide can be used in the microwave and electronic industries; yttrium aluminum garnet and neodymium glass made of high-purity neodymium oxide can be used as solid laser materials; rare earth hexaboron Compounds can be used to make cathode materials for electron emission; lanthanum-nickel metal is a newly developed hydrogen storage material in the 1970s; lanthanum chromate is a high-temperature thermoelectric material; current countries around the world use barium-yttrium-copper-oxygen modified barium-based oxides Conductive materials, superconductors can be obtained in the temperature zone of liquid nitrogen, making a breakthrough in the development of superconducting materials. In addition, rare earths are also widely used in lighting sources such as phosphors, intensifying screen phosphors, tri-color phosphors, copy lamp powders, etc. (but due to rising prices of rare earths leading to higher costs, the application in lighting is gradually decreasing), Electronic products such as projection TVs, tablet computers, etc.; in agriculture, the application of trace amounts of rare earth nitrate to field crops can increase their output by 5-10%; in the textile industry, rare earth chlorides are also widely used in fur tanning, fur dyeing, Wool dyeing and carpet dyeing; rare earths are used in automotive catalytic converters to convert the main pollutants into non-toxic compounds when the engine exhausts.

 

other apps

Rare earth elements are also used in a variety of digital products including audio-visual, photography, and communication digital equipment, which meets the requirements of smaller, faster, lighter, longer-lasting, and energy-saving products. At the same time, it has also been applied to many fields such as green energy, medical treatment, water purification, and transportation.